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  • Amazing Facts in Biology
    • • The largest cell in the human body is the female egg and the smallest is the male sperm
      • The brain is much more active at night than during the day.
      • During your lifetime, you will produce enough saliva to fill two swimming pools..Your nose can remember 50,000 different scents.
      • Women’s hearts beat faster than men’s.
      • Your eyes are always the same size from birth (but your nose and ears never stop growing).
      • On any given day, sexual intercourse takes place 120 million times on earth.
      • The brain itself cannot feel pain.
      • The largest internal organ is the small intestine.
      • Sneezes regularly exceed 100 mph & nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 170 miles per hour.
      • It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
      • Some frogs can be frozen solid, then thawed, and continue living.
      • Some frogs can pull their eyes into their throat and help push food down!
      • Frogs live on all continents except Antarctica.
      • Wood frogs can be frozen solid and then thawed, and continue living. They use the glucose in their body to protect their vital organs while they are in a frozen state.
      • When threatened, the horned toad shoots blood from its eyes.
      • The Poison Arrow frog has enough poison stored in it that it can harm 2,200 people at one go.
      • Frogs cannot vomit. Whenever a frog absolutely has to vomit, it vomits its entire stomach.
      • Unlike a frog a toad cannot jump.
      • There is a substance in the skin of the African clawed frog that helps in fighting infection.
      • The sound made by the toadfish when mating underwater is so loud that it can be heard by humans on the shore
      • The smallest frog is the "Brazilian baby frog", which is smaller than a dime
      • The mating call of a male toadfish, which are underwater, is so loud that it can be heard by humans above water
      • The fire-bellied toad has a bright red belly that it displays to predators as a defense mechanism. It is also a warning that the toad's skin is poisonous.
      • The Spring peeper (a frog) can survive the winter season with 65% of its body water as ice.
      • In 1864, A Quebec farmer found a frog inside a hailstone.
      • Frogs do not need to drink water as they absorb the water through their skin.
      • Found in Argentina, the ornate horned frog can eat an entire mouse with one swallow.
      • An adult "Gold Frog" measures to be 9.8 millimeters in body length.
      • The bee frog of Africa is no bigger than a bee.
      • Frogs start their lives as 'eggs' often lay in or near fresh water
      • The smallest frog is less than 3/8 of an inch in length
      • The largest frog in the world is called Goliath frog
      • Frogs belong to a group of animals called amphibians
      • Flying frogs change color in the day. They are greenish-blue in sunlight and green in the evening. At night there are black
      • Boas, as well as many other snakes have special heat-sensitive organs that are called pits. These pits are on their heads. They can detect the heat given by a warm-blooded animal standing close to them.
      • The king Cobra can grow to the length of 5.5 m, and is regarded as the largest poisonous snake in the world. A tiny amount of its poison can kill up to 30 people.
      • Most dinosaurs walked on their toes.
      • The stegosaurus had a brain the size of a walnut
      • Dinosaurs probably lived to be between 75 to 300 years of age. Scientists figured this out from looking at the structure of their bones
      • Snakes always keep their eyes open, even when they are asleep
      • A crocodile cannot stick its tongue out
      • A chameleon's tongue is twice the length of its body
      • Cobras are able to kill with a bite as soon as they are born
      • The reptiles have 6,000 species crawling in their habitats; and more are discovered each year
      • No dentist for this creature! Crocodiles, through their life grow new teeth that replace the old set
      • A crocodile can never stick its tongue out of its mouth
      • About 9000 species of birds are present all over the world
      • Birds are the Best fliers.
      • There are about 100 billion birds in the world
      • The only one group of animals having feathers is birds (Aves).
      • Feathers of most of the birds are heavier than their bones.
      • The lifespan of 75 % of wild birds is 6 months.
      • Male birds are more attractive and handsome than female birds. It helps to attract female.
      • Body temperature of Owl, Duck, Eagle etc is 104-106o F whereas of Pigeon & sparrow: 107-109o F
      • Birds do not sweat, as they do not have sweat glands. Skin is dry without glands except the oil gland at the base of the tail.
      • Birds have 100 times better night vision than that of human.
      • Polar bears look white, but they actually have black skin
      • The smallest species of bears is called sun or Malayan bears
      • Bears whose brown fur is tipped with lighter-colored hairs are called grizzly bears.
      • Here is some news for the left-handed people – they are not the only ones, as all polar bears are left-handed.
      • Alaskan brown bears, world's largest meat-eating animals that live on land, can weigh as much as 1,700 pounds (771 kilograms)
      • The grizzly bear can run as fast as the average horse!!
      • Bears are native to the continents of North America, Asia, Europe, and South America.
      • At birth, a panda is smaller than a mouse and weighs about four ounces
      • The wild panda's diet consist 99% of bamboo
      • The only predator that polar bears have is humans
      • The Kodiak, which is native to Alaska, is the largest bear and can measure up to eight feet and weigh as much as 1,700 pounds.
      • Polar bears are excellent swimmers. They have been known to swim more than 60 miles without a rest.
      • Polar bear livers contain so much Vitamin A that it can be fatal if eaten by a human.
      • Not all polar bears hibernate; only pregnant females polar bears do.
      • A cat has 32 muscles in each ear.
      • A cat's jaws cannot move sideways.
      • A domestic cat sleeps for up to 14 hours a day.
      • A fall of 30 feet can be survived my most cats.
      • Dalmatian puppies do not have any spots on them when they are born. They actually develop them as they get older.
      • Dogs and cats are either right or left-pawed!
      • Dogs and cats, like humans, are either right or left handed... or is that paws?!
      • Dogs can be trained to detect an upcoming epileptic seizure.
      • Dogs can't see colors. They're color blind.
      • Dogs sweat only through their tongues.
      • 701 types of pure breed dogs are there in the world?
      • If you were to remove the scent receptors from a dog's nose and lay them out flat, they would cover an area greater than the dog itself.
      • In 2002, dogs have killed more people in the U.S. than the Great White shark has killed in the past 100 years.
      • In the United States, every year about 15 people die from dog bites.
      • Irish wolfhound dogs have a short lifespan and live about 7-8 years.
      • It costs an average of $5,000 to raise a dog to ten years old.
      • It was once against the law to have a pet dog in a city in Iceland.
      • Nose prints are used to identify dogs, like humans use fingerprints.
      • Pixie, a Siberian husky, gave birth to 7 puppies, one of which was bright green.
      • Only one mammal can't jump -- the elephant.
      • The trunk of an elephant can hold up to two gallons of water.
      • The elephant is the national animal of Thailand.
      • In a day, an elephant can drink 80 gallons of water.
      • In 1916, an elephant was tried and hung for murder in Erwin, Tennessee.
      • When you hold your hand out to a horse and the horse comes over and blows out warm air onto the palm of your hand it normally means that the horse wants to be friends with you.
      • Horses have stomachs also and they need to eat. Horses should be fed two times a day.
      • A horse weighing approximately 1,200-pounds eats approximately seven times its own weight, in a year. That amounts to almost 8,400-pounds of food. Wow! What an appetite!
      • Is a zebra black with white stripes, or white with black stripes? Any guesses? Well, it’s white with black stripes.
      • No two zebras have stripes that are exactly alike. Zebra’s enemies include hyenas, wild dogs, and lions. Male zebras are called stallions. Zebras usually travel in herds.
      • A ‘mob’ is not just a group of unruly people; but also a group of kangaroos – well behaved or not!
      • A kangaroo can jump 45 feet!
      • The faster kangaroos hop, the less energy they use.
      • When they are in danger, kangaroos will beat the ground loudly with their hind feet.
      • Unlike other four legged mammals, kangaroos cannot walk backwards.
      • There is a certain species of kangaroo that is only 2.5 centimeters long when it is born.
      • A newborn kangaroo weighs approximately 0.03 ounces and is small enough to fit in a teaspoon.
      • Young kangaroos are called joeys.
      • A group of kangaroos is called a mob.
      • Kangaroos are native of Australia.
      • There are more than 50 different kinds of kangaroos.
      • The female lion does more than 90% of the hunting while the male simply prefers to rest. !!
      • Only 5 to 10 percent of cheetah cubs make it to adulthood.
      • Cheetahs are the fastest land animal and can reach speeds up to 72mph.
      • Tigers have striped skin, not just striped fur.
      • Roar, roar! I am the king of the jungle! But did you know the lion would be defeated by a polar bear in a battle between the two?
      • Cheetahs maybe large and fast, but when they roar they chirp. This sounds more like a bird or a yelping dog. Beware; it is loud enough to be heard up to a mile away.
      • A cheetah can run 76 kilometers per hour (46 miles per hour) - that's really fast! The fastest human being runs only about 30 kilometers per hour (18 miles per hour).
      • A cheetah does not roar like a lion - it purrs like a cat (meow).
      • While the male lion rests in its den, it is the females that have go out and get the food.
      • Lions cannot roar until they reach the age of two.
      • An adult lion's roar is so loud; it can be heard up to five miles away.
      • A lion feeds once every three to four days.
      • Between 1902 and 1907, the same tiger killed 434 people in India.
      • A white tiger can only be born when both parents carry the gene for white colouring.
      • Gorillas are considered apes, not monkeys. The way to distinguish between an ape and a monkey is that apes do not have tails.
      • Gorilla's have unique nose prints just as humans have unique fingerprints.
      • Snow Monkeys live in areas where the temperature is an average of -10ºC.
      • The Old World monkeys include some terrestrial species such as the baboons, while New World monkeys are exclusively arboreal. Some New World monkeys have a prehensile, or grasping, tail. The tail can be used like a hand.
      • Monkeys are divided into two geographically separate groups - the New World monkeys of South America and the Old World monkeys, found in Africa and Asia.
      • Approximately 50 percent of all orangutans have fractured bones, a result of falling off of trees on a regular basis.
      • Apart from human’s even chimpanzees can learn to recognize their own image in a mirror.
      • Bats always turn left when they leave their caves.
      • Frog-eating bats identify edible frogs from poisonous ones by listening to the mating calls of male frogs. Frogs counter this by hiding and using short, difficult to locate calls.
      • Bats eat all types of food. There is no restriction where their diet is concerned.
      • Bats sleep during the day and feed at night. The place that bats sleep in is called the "roost."
      • Bats emit ultrasonic sounds to communicate with each other.
      • Bats always turn left when exiting a cave.
      • African heart-nosed bats can have such a keen sense of sound that they can hear the footsteps of a beetle walking on sand from six feet away.
      • Giant flying foxes, which are a type of bat, that live in Indonesia have wingspans of nearly six feet.
      • No right turn! The bats do not need any boards, for it’s always the left turn for them when exiting a cave.
      • The flying fox of Africa has a wingspan of fifty inches!
      • The flying fox is a bat with a wing span over five feet.
      • The world's smallest mammal is the bumblebee bat of Thailand, weighing less than a penny.
      • Vampire bat saliva has been responsible for many advances in research into stroke recovery.
      • The hippopotamus’s eyes, ears and nostrils are on the top of its head. This enables it to stand or sit, almost completely covered by water with as little as possible showing above the surface.
      • The hippopotamus’s skin is protected by its own pink oily secretion known as ‘Pink sweat’.
      • A hippopotamus can run faster than a man.
      • A standing 4-foot child can fit into the open of a hippopotamus.
      • The hippopotamus gives birth under water and nurses its young in the river as well, though the young hippos do come up periodically for air.
      • Armadillos have four babies of the same sex, at a time. They are perfect identical quadruplets.
      • Can you walk underwater? Well, here is one animal that can – the Armadillos
      • Which animals can get leprosy? None expect for Armadillos.
      • Animals with some of the longest lives are the Marion’s tortoise (152 years), the fin whale (116 years) and the deep-sea clam (100 years).
      • There are about 40 species or kinds of porpoises and dolphins.
      • Porpoises and dolphins communicate with each other by squeaking, growling, moaning, and whistling.
      • Dolphins sleep with one eye open
      • The small car on the road is probably the size of the heart of a blue whale
      • Heavyweights! The tongue of a blue whale could weigh more than a full-grown adult elephant
      • Flying fish actually glide on wind currents above the surface of the water, sometimes up to 20 feet above the surface
      • Starfish can have up to 16 arms
      • The 14-foot-long narwhal is a whale whose tooth can reach up to eight feet long
      • When an octopus gets angry, it shoots a stream of black "ink
      • A jellyfish is 95% water
      • The largest member of the dolphin family is called an orca or killer whale.
      • The blue whale, the largest animal to have ever existed, is 96 feet long and weighs 125 tons. This is as much as 4 large dinosaurs (Brontosauri), 23 elephants, 230 cows or 1800 men.
      • The world's largest rodent is the Capybara. Amazon water hog that looks like a guinea pig, it can weigh more than 100 pounds.
      • The leatherback is the biggest sea turtle. It weighs as much as 1,500 pounds.
      • The emperor penguin is playful, and often times lies on its chest and side to slide along the ice and snow.
      • A Giant squid's eye can be as big as a basketball.
      • Some fish have eyes that are the same size as their stomach!
      • The hippopotamus gives birth under water and nurses its young in the river as well, though the young hippos do come up periodically for air.
      • A female seahorse lets her husband store her babies inside his stomach!
      • Sea horses pull themselves around with their chins leading them.
      • The blue whale is the largest creature that has ever lived on earth. It tips the scales at a whopping 170 tons - that's the same as about 22 elephants. Its heart is the size of a small car, and its largest blood vessels are wide enough for an adult to swim through without much difficulty.
      • Porpoises and dolphins communicate with each other by squeaking, growling, moaning, and whistling. Porpoises and dolphins are mammals. There are about 40 species or kinds of porpoises and dolphins. Most porpoises and dolphins navigate by using "echolocation". The largest member of the dolphin family is called an orca or killer whale.
      • Did you know fishes cannot live in the Dead Sea because the water has too much salt in it?
      • A parrot fish makes its own sleeping bag to sleep in. It uses mucous (like spit) to make a see-through bag all around its body to protect it from attack by other creatures in the ocean.
      • The blue whale is the largest animal on earth. The heart of a blue whale is as big as a car, and its tongue is as long as an elephant.
      • The pelican uses the funny looking pouch under its lower beak for catching fish. It does this by swooshing into the water and scooping up as many fish as possible.
      • The heaviest fish ever caught was the Ocean Sunfish. It weighed 4,928 lbs.
      • Did you know pearls are found in oysters? The largest pearl ever found was 620 carats.
      • The sword tail is the fastest swimmer of all the fish
      • A giant squid’s eyes are the largest amongst animal species measuring up to 40 cm (16 inches) in diameter.
      • Sharks are very healthy, as they are immune to all known diseases.
      • On average, sharks kill 10 humans every year. Approximately 100 people die each year when they are stepped on by cows.
      • Frogs have an ear drum on the outside of their head.
      • Sea otters always float on their backs when they eat.
      • The largest recorded jellyfish measured 2, 3 m across its bell. Its tentacles measured 36 m (120 feet) in length.
      • The largest giant squid ever found weighed 4 tons. It was traced in the in the North Atlantic in the year 1878.
      • The sailfish can swim at the speed of 109 km/h, making it the fastest swimmer.
      • The Sea Horse is the slowest fish, drifting at approximately 0.016 km/h.
      • Sharks are the only known species to never suffer from cancer
      • Oysters change from male to female gender several times during their lifespan
      • Every shrimp is actually born a male and then become females as they mature.
  • Father Of Some Branches
    • • Anatomy- Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
      • Antibiotics- Alexander Flemming
      • Antiseptic surgery- J. Lister
      • Ayurveda-Charaka
      • Bacteriology- R. Koch
      • Biology-Aristotle
      • Blood circulation-William Harvey
      • Blood groups-Land Steiner
      • Botany-Theophrastus
      • Botany, Modern-K. Bauhin
      • Bryology-Johann Hedwig
      • Chemotherapy-Paul Erlich
      • Comparative anatomy-George Leopold Cuvier (1769-1832)
      • Comparative zoology-Cuvier
      • Concept of Evolution-Empedocles
      • Conditioned reflex-I.P Pavlov
      • Cytology-Robert Hooke
      • Cytology, Modern-Carl P. Swanson
      • DNA Finger printing-Alec Jeffry
      • ECG-Einthoven
      • Embryology-Kaspar Friedrich Wolff
      • Embryology, modern-Karl Ernst Von Baer
      • Endocrinology-Thomas Addison
      • Epidemiology-John Snow
      • Ethology-Konrad Lorentz
      • Eugenics-Francis Galton
      • Experimental Genetics-T.H. Morgan
      • Experimental physiology-Galen
      • Fermentation-Louis Pasteur
      • Genetic engineering-Paul Berg
      • Genetics-G.J. Mendel
      • Genetics, Modern-W. Bateson
      • Gerontology (Ageing)-Korenchevsk
      • Haploid Genetics-Dodge (Neurospora genetics)
      • Histology-Francis Bichat
      • Histology (Microscopic anatomy)-Malpighi
      • Homoeopathy-Samuel Hahnemann
      • Human genetics (Biochemical genetics)-A. Garrod
      • Immunology-E. Jenner
      • Indian Algology (Phycology)-M.O.P. Iyengar
      • Indian Bryology-S.R Kashyap
      • Indian Ecology-R. Misra
      • Indian embryology-P. Maheshwari
      • Indian mycology and plant Pathology-E.J. Butler
      • Indian Palaeoboatny-Birbal Sahni
      • Indian Palynology-P.K.K Nair
      • Indian systematic botany (Taxonomy)-H. Santapau
      • Medicine-Hippocrates
      • Microbiology, Modern-Louis Pasteur
      • Microscopy-Marcello Malpighi
      • Microscopy and Microbiology-A.V. Leeuwenhoek
      • Mosaic theory-Wilhelm Roux
      • Mutation theory of evolution-Hugo de Vries
      • Mycology-P.A Micheli
      • Palaeontology-Leonardo da Vinci
      • Palaeontology, Modern-Cuvier
      • Palynology-Erdtman
      • Pathology, Modern-R.Virchow
      • Plant anatomy-N. Grew
      • Plant Ecology-Warming
      • Plant pathology-De Bary
      • Plant physiology-Stephan Hales
      • Polio vaccine-J.Salk
      • Quantitative or Polygenic Inheritance-Kolreuter
      • Regulative theory of embryonic development-Hans Driesch
      • Special creation theory-Father Sqrez
      • Stress physiology-Hans Selye
      • Taxonomy-Carl Linnaeus
      • Taxonomy, Modern-C. Linnaeus
      • Zoology-Aristotle
  • Mnemonics
    • While teaching biology I found that students are not remembering some concepts. To make easy remembrance I have created mnemonics, which can help students to understand , remember in easy and funny way.
      It’s difficult to put all mnemonics here, hence you will get few of them.

      >>Mnemonic to remember categories of Classification

      “King Phillip Cried Out For Good Soup”
      King- Kingdom
      Out -Order

      >> Mnemonic to remember Phases of Mitosis & Meiosis


      >> Mnemonic to remember order of subphases of Prophase II of meiosis II

      “ Let’s Zoom in Party with Deadly Dance”
      Let’s- Leptotene
      Zoom- Zygotene
      Party- Pachetene
      Deadly- Diplotene
      Dance –Diakinesis

      >> Mnemonic to remember Citric acid cycle

      “Can Adam Impress An ͡ Old Super Sincere Foxy Madona Ok!”
      Can –Citrate
      Adam-Cis aconitate
      An-α ketoglutarate
      Super-Succinyl Co-A
      Ok!-Oxalo acetate

      >> Mnemonic to remember non cyclic photophosphorylation

      “Phillip Boyle ↑ Found PC in Farady’s Factory”
      Boyle- Cyt b6
      Found-Cyt f

      >> Mnemonic to remember cyclic photophosphorylation

      “Faraday Found↑ Bag ↑ Full of Pound”
      Bag-Cyt b6
      Full- Cyt f
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